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Seconda prova Maturità 2018: tracce svolte di Inglese per Liceo Linguistico
Al liceo linguistico la traccia della seconda prova della Maturità 2018 consiste nella lingua caratterizzante del proprio indirizzo, anche detta Lingua Straniera 1. Negli istituti in cui questa lingua è l'inglese si affronta quindi per la seconda prova la traccia di Inglese. Leggi la traccia ufficiale del Miur della prova di inglese.
TRACCIA SVOLTA INGLESE SECONDA PROVA MATURITÀ 2018 LINGUISTICO PUNTO B - TEMA STORICO-SOCIALE
COMPREHENSION AND INTERPRETATION
- The first European migrants to settle in North America were the Spanish and French, during the 1500s and, then, in 1607, the English established their first permanent settlement.
- The “second wave” of English immigrants were Protestants (both Pilgrims and Puritans) that went to North America in order to be free to profess their religion, because in Europe they were persecuted.
- Many groups of immigrants did not choose to move of their own free will, like thousands of English convicts, utilised as servants, and African black people, exploited as slaves.
- In the 1840s, so many Irish people arrived and settled on the East Coast of the USA because they were suffering hunger and poverty, due to a famine that affected Ireland.
- Native-born US citizens opposed the arrival of new migrants because it could have result in a shortage of jobs and, furthermore, they discriminated Catholics for religious reasons.
- Chinese immigration was one of the first migrant flows to be restricted by law because the Chinese labourers accepted to work for a lower salary compared to other people.
- In 1890, for the purpose of controlling migrant flows, the US federal government created a federal immigration station in Ellis Island, where more than 12 million immigrants entered the country until 1954.
- Among arrivals of the 1890s, there were a lot of people from Central, Eastern and Southern Europe, especially Italians and Jews.
- The quota system set up by the 1924 Immigration Act established that only 2 percent of the total number of people of each nationality could come in America with the effect of increasing migrant flows from Western Europe and banning immigrants from Asia.
- The 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act and the subsequent legislation altered immigration patterns to the U.S. by eliminating quotas based on nationality and enabling the entry of US citizens relatives from their native countries.
PRODUCTION - TRACCIA 1
Migration is not a novelty. Many individuals or group of individuals often tried to search a land where life could be easier than in their own countries.
So, the main reasons of migration flows have always been especially economic and social. But integration was never easy neither for migrants, who had to cope with their own fears in leaving their land, nor for receiving countries, often full of prejudices against foreigners.
For that concerns the USA, the British arriving were privileged by the language, while for other people learning a new language was the hardest part of the integration. Religion and skin colour were other discriminating aspects which made integration difficult in USA. Yet at the end of the XIX century, the USA were a country with an immense territory to fill and great opportunities to offer: this explains for the millions of immigrants the country admitted legally.
The story is not repeating because nowadays Europe is a continent almost saturated by natives and immigrants, and in many cases, unemployment makes thing worse. Although migrants are mainly utilized for the humblest work, yet they prefer to face the difficulties of the integration in other countries wishing to escape from countries where wars and famines make their escape a hope for surviving.
Anyway, it is difficult to generalize a theme which presents various aspects relevant to the different receiving communities. Today European states are trying to discuss and solve the problem.
The positive aspect of migration is the opportunity for people belonging to different nationalities to come into contact, to know each other, to mingle their uses and traditions, contributing to the globalization. The negative aspects are the prejudices on both sides (immigrants and receiving communities) and, in some cases, the weak economic and social conditions of host countries.